新型コロナウイルスについて個人と企業がやるべきこと

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コロナウイルスの特徴

  • 潜伏期間は最大で14日間程度で、インフルエンザ等の他のウイルスに比べて長い
  • 潜伏期間中も含め、症状が無くても感染力がある
  • 一人のコロナウイルス患者から基本的に2人から2.5人に感染させる感染力がある
  • 感染経路は、感染者の唾液が直接かかる飛沫感染と、感染者の唾液が飛んだところや、唾液がついている手で触ったところを、他の人が触って感染する、接触感染の2種類ある

感染予防

手指衛生と咳エチケットの2つが基本

手指衛生の方法

水道水と石けんを使用してウイルスを洗い流す方法アルコール消毒の2種類があります

水道水と石けんを使用してウイルスを洗い流す方法

このときに注意してほしいのが、ただ石けんをつけてちゃちゃと洗えばいいというわけではありません。きちんと時間をかけて手の全体をこすり合わせて、洗う必要があります。

詳しい手の洗い方はこちらを参考にしてください。

アルコール消毒法

この場合も、石けんでの手洗い同様、手全体にいきわたるようにこすり合わせる必要があります。

現在アルコール消毒は手に入りにくい状況ではありますが、持っている方は、小さいボトルに詰め替えてポケットに入れておくと、便利に使うことが出来ます

咳エチケット

  • マスクの着用する
  • くしゃみや咳をするときはティッシュなどで鼻と口を覆う
  • とっさの時は袖や上着の内側で鼻や口を覆う
  • 咳やくしゃみをするときは、周囲からなるべく離れ、距離を取ります。

自分自身の指は清潔ではなく、もしかしたらウイルスがついているかもしれないと考え、口や鼻、目などの顔をむやみに触らないことや、気軽に手づかみで物を食べないことをお勧めします。

職場でできる感染予防

社員の健康状態のモニタリング職場の消毒他人との接触の機会を減らすの3つが基本になります。

社員の健康状態のモニタリング

  • 発熱がある場合は出社させない
  • 発熱はないが体調不良がある場合も出社させない
  • 社内で勤務中に熱が出たら、マスクをして帰宅させる
  • かかりつけ医に受診する際は、受診方法を電話で確認し、マスクをして受診します
  • 発熱があって、3日以内に解熱した場合は、全ての症状が消失してから48時間経過してから出勤させる
  • 発熱があって、4日を経過しても解熱しない場合もしくは、味覚や嗅覚異常を感じたときは、本人が帰国者・接触者相談センターへ連絡します
  • 毎朝自宅で検温してから出勤させる
  • 朝、出勤後上司が、部下の体調の確認をする

等、 社員の健康を管理していくことが必要になります。

職場での消毒

職場にコロナウイルスを持ち込まないという視点から、適宜、職場の消毒を行っていくことが大切です。

コロナウイルスはアルコール消毒液次亜塩素酸ナトリウムに弱いとされています。ただ、現在アルコール消毒液は手に入りにくい状況にあるため、職場などでは次亜塩素酸ナトリウム0.05%での消毒をお勧めします。次亜塩素酸ナトリウムはドラックストアで売っているいわゆる、キッチンハイターになります。現在も入手できるということと、少量で消毒液を作ることが出来るという点でお勧めします。

次亜塩素酸ナトリウム0.05%の作り方

ペットボトル500mlの水+ペットボトルのキャップ1杯の次亜塩素酸ナトリウムを入れる

ビニール袋に折ったキッチンペーパーを入れて、作った次亜塩素酸ナトリウム0.05%消毒液をキッチンペーパーが浸るくらい入れます。手袋・マスクを着用して消毒液が浸った、キッチンペーパーでドアノブ、手すり、電気スイッチ、パソコン、マウス、コピー機のタッチ画面、電話など、人が多く触るところを中心に拭いていきます。

多少匂いもするので、この機会に換気をすることをお勧めします。

もし、発熱後帰宅した社員がいましたら、その人のデスク回り2mを中心に念入りに消毒していくことも必要です。

他の人との接触の機会を減らす

3つの密、密閉密集密接を避けていきます。

  • 休憩室や食堂等の人が集まる部屋の利用を制限する
  • 会議は、TV会議、zoomなどを利用する
  • 他の人との距離は2m以上保つ
  • 研修・セミナーは延期、もしくは中止とする
  • 会社主催の懇親会等は中止とするなどがあげられます。

万が一、対策していなくて、クラスターが発生したということの無いよう、きちんと対策をしていきましょう

よくある質問

Q1. 社員が感染したのですがどうしたらいいですか?

A1. まずは医療機関の指示に従い、入院治療が行われます。経過が順調に改善している段階で

  • 24時間発熱がない
  • 呼吸器症状が改善している
  • PCR検査で2回陰性 

この3つの条件がそろえば、退院となります。

Q2. 復職はいつからさせていいのですか?

A2. 退院後4週間は、健康観察が必要になります。少なくても退院後1週間程度の自宅療養をし、主治医からのアドバイスを受け、体調を確認しながら復帰を決めていきます。

Q3. 社員が濃厚接触者となりました。社員は自宅待機させるべきでしょうか?

A3. 濃厚接触者と判断された場合は、保健所から14日間の健康観察が求められます。健康観察中は不要不急の外出を控え、基本的には自宅待機することが望ましいです。やむを得ず出社や外出する場合は、手指衛生、咳エチケットの徹底をし、公共交通機関は利用せずに移動することが必要です。

Q4. 社員の家族が濃厚接触者と判断されました。社員は無症状ですが出勤させてよいでしょうか?

A4. 家族(同居者)が濃厚接触者と判断されただけでは、社員本人を自宅待機にする必要はありません。ただし、社員には、マスクの着用や手指衛生の徹底などの家庭内での感染管理が求められます。社員は自分の体調に注意し、体調不良を自覚する場合は出社を控えてください。

日本産業衛生学会 新型コロナウイルス情報より一部抜粋

まとめ

今まで経験したことの無いこの非常事態、皆さんそれぞれ大変な思いを抱えていらっしゃるかと思います。こうすればよかったと後悔しないためにも、自分が出来ることを考え、協力してこの非常事態を乗り切っていければと思います。

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