病気の治療と仕事の両立支援

両立支援って何?

両立支援とは、病気を抱えながらも、働く意欲・能力がある従業員を安心して意欲的に、治療を行いながら働くことも継続していくことを様々な形で支援していく取り組みの事です。

何で両立支援が必要なの?

少子高齢化社会によって、労働人口の減少と高齢化が進んでいます。高齢労働者が増えれば、当然慢性的な疾患を持ちながら働く人も増えます。

また、労働人口が減少し、人手不足の現在、今働いている人を大事にし、病気を抱えながらでも働く意欲がある従業員を両立支援にて支え、安心して働ける会社を目指していくことで、労働力の確保、ひいては生産性の安定、企業の組織や事業の活性化を図ります。

従業員が病気になったから、辞めさせる、といった今までの価値観、考えでは、人材不足がますます加速化する社会において、企業の価値、存続が危ぶまれることにも成りかねます。

両立支援の法律における位置づけ

労働安全衛生法上、事業者による労働者の健康確保措置として 健康診断の実施および医師の意見を勘案し、その必要があると認めるときは就業上の措置(就業場所の変更、作業転換、労働時間の短縮、深夜業の回数の減少等)の実施を義務付けています。

同法及び安全衛生規則では、事業者は 「心臓、腎臓、肺等の疾患で労働のため病勢が著しく憎悪するおそれのあるものにかかった者」についてはその就業を禁止しなければならないとしています。

また同法では、事業者は その就業に当たって、中高年齢者等の特に配慮を必要とするものについてはこれらの者の心身の条件に応じて適切な配置を行うように努めなければならないこととされている。

これらは労働者が業務に従事することで、疾病に罹患したり、疾病が悪化するのを防ぐもので、「病気の治療と仕事の両立支援」はこの健康確保措置として位置づけられています。  

治療と両立支援を行う6つのポイント

①安全と健康の確保

就労によって、疾患の悪化等が生じないように、就業上の措置(就業場所の変更、作業転換、労働時間の短縮、深夜業の回数の減少等)や配慮を行います。仕事の繁忙等を理由に、就業上の措置や配慮を実施しないことがないようにする。

②労働者本人による取組

本人が、主治医の指示等に基づき、治療を受けること、服薬する事、適切な生活習慣を守ること等、きちんと治療や疾病の憎悪防止に努めることが重要です。

③労働者本人の申出

本人から支援の申出があって、両立支援がスタートします。本人からの申出が行われるよう、会社でのルールの作成と周知、相談窓口や情報の取扱い方法の明確化など、申出が行いやすい環境を整備することも大切です。

④特徴を踏まえた、個別性のある対応

病気の種類によって働く上での困難が違ったり、さらに同じ病名であっても、従業員一人ひとりの状態や業務内容、職場環境によって異なります。そのため、それぞれに合った就業上の措置、配慮が必要になります。

⑤対象者、対応方法の明確化

会社の状況の応じて、ルールを事前に制定し、両立支援の対象者、対応方法等を明確にしておくことが重要です。

⑥個人情報の保護

病名や症状、治療に関する情報は、機微な個人情報であるため、会社が本人の同意なく取得してはならないこと。また、健康診断又は本人からの申出による健康情報は、取扱う者の範囲や第三者への漏洩防止も含めた適切な情報管理体制の整備が必要です。

両立支援を行うための環境整備

事業者による基本方針等の表明と労働者への周知

衛生委員会等で調査審議を行った上で、事業者として、治療と仕事の両立支援に取組むにあたっての基本方針や具体的な対応方法等の事業場内ルールを作成し、全ての労働者に周知することで、両立支援の必要性や意義を共有し、治療と仕事の両立しやすい職場環境を作ります。

研修等による両立支援に関する意識啓発

治療と仕事の両立支援を円滑に実施するため、当事者やその同僚となり得る全ての労働者、管理職に対して、治療と仕事の両立に関する研修等を通じた意識啓蒙を行うこと。

相談窓口等の明確化

両立支援は労働者からの申出を原則とすることから、労働者が安心して相談・申出を行えるよう、相談窓口等を明確にすることが必要です。

両立支援に関する制度・体制の整備

  1.  休暇制度、勤務制度の整備
  2. 労働者から支援を求める申し出があった場合の対応手順、関係者の役割の整理
  3. 関係者間の円滑な情報共有のための仕組みづくり
  4. 両立支援に関する制度や体制の実効性の確保
  5. 各担当者、スタッフとの連携

両立支援の進め方

  1. 労働者から支援に必要な情報を得る
  2. 労働者もしくは事業者が労働者の仕事に関する情報を主治医へ提供
  3. 主治医の意見書(就業継続の可否、就業上の措置及び治療に対する配慮等)による情報収集
  4. 事業者は、主治医からの意見書を勘案し、就業継続の可否を判断
  5. 事業者が労働者の就業継続が可能と判断した場合、就業上の措置および治療に対する配慮の内容・実施時期等を検討・決定する。
  6. 事業者が労働者の長期休業が必要と判断した場合、休業開始前の対応・休業中のフォローアップを事業者が行うとともに、主治医や産業医の意見、本人の意向、復帰予定の部署の意見等を総合的に勘案し、職場の復帰の可否を判断した上で、就業上の措置や配慮の内容を検討・決定する。
  7. 復帰後も、適時労働者に状況を確認し、必要に応じて措置内容・配慮の変更を行う等、継続してフォローしていく。

まとめ

両立支援を行うにあたっては、地域の産業保健センターや民間の産業保健関係の窓口に相談し、協力を得ながら実施していくとスムーズです。

今働いている人を、大切にし、継続的な人材確保、長期的な視点での労働者の安心感やモチベーションの向上による人材の定着・生産性の向上のため、病気を持ちながらでも安心して働ける職場環境を作っていきましょう。

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