2020年4月1日健康増進法改定「受動喫煙防止」のポイント

2013年健康増進法において、公共施設等の多数の人が利用する施設において受動喫煙防止の努力義務が課せられ、これによりレストランや公共施設での分煙ないし禁煙が進みました。

2015年には企業が受動喫煙防止のための措置をとることが努力義務になり、職場での分煙が進みました。

2018年健康増進法が改定され、東京オリンピック、パラリンピック競技にむけ、受動喫煙防止対策について新たなルールが制定されました。

2020年4月には職場においても受動喫煙防止の対策をとることが義務となり、対応していない企業へは罰則が課せられる可能性もあります。

そこで、企業が行う受動喫煙防止対策のポイントをお伝えします。

企業の義務とは?

多くの施設において、屋内が原則禁煙となります。もちろん、企業もこの対象になります。

ただし、経営者の判断により各種喫煙室(専用室、可能室、加熱式たばこ専用室、目的室)を設置し、そこでのみ喫煙することも可能です。

施設内の各種喫煙室の標識

各種喫煙室には設備に応じて下記の標識の掲示が必要となります。

喫煙専用室(たばこの喫煙が可能、飲食等の提供不可)、一般的な事業者が適合

加熱式たばこ専用喫煙室(加熱式たばこに限定、飲食等の提供可能)、一般的な事業者が適合(経過措置)

喫煙目的室(たばこの喫煙が可能、飲食等の提供可能)、特定事業目的施設に限定

喫煙可能室(たばこの喫煙が可能、飲食等の提供可能)、残存特定飲食提供施設に限定(経過措置)

20歳未満の方については、従業員であっても、喫煙エリアへは立入禁止となります。

20歳未満の方を喫煙エアリアに立ち入らせた場合、施設の管理者は罰則の対象となります。

助成金、税制制度

事業者が、受動喫煙対策を行う際の支援策として、各種喫煙室の設置等に係る、財政・税制上の制度が整備されています。

 [ 財政支援 ] 受動喫煙防止対策助成金

中小企業事業主が受動喫煙防止対策を実施するために必要な経費のうち、一定の基準を満たす各種喫煙室等の設置などにかかる工費、設備費、備品費、機械装置費などの経費に対して助成を行う制度です。

 [ 税制措置 ] 特別償却又は税額控除制度

2021年3月31日までに、認定経営革新等支援機関等(商工会議所等)による、経営改善に関する指導に基づいて、一定の要件を満たした経営改善設備の取得を行った場合に、取得価額の特別償却(30%)又は税額控除(7%)の適用を認めます。

効果的な受動喫煙の進め方

受動喫煙対策を効果的に推進するには、経営者、管理者、従業員が、受動喫煙対策の必要性と目的、意義を理解し、それぞれの役割を果たしながら、協力して推進していくことが大切です。

  • 経営者が受動喫煙に関する基本方針を明確に示し、従業員へ周知する
  • 担当者を決める ・会社として受動喫煙対策の年間計画を立てる
  • 部署ごとに計画推進のための体制を整える
  • 妊婦、持病(呼吸器・循環器系)がある従業員、未成年については特別注意する

受動喫煙防止のための環境整備のポイント

方法としては、空間全体の「禁煙」と空間の「分煙」があります。 効果的に受動喫煙防止対策を行うために、喫煙者、非喫煙者の利益を調整し、双方の理解を得ながら、環境整備を実施していきます。

・屋内を完全禁煙にする

・喫煙室の設置

喫煙コーナーよりも、独立した部屋としての喫煙室が望まれます。喫煙室の設置が困難な場合は、喫煙コーナーとなりますが、天井から吊り下げた板などによる壁、または衝立、防炎フィルムによる囲い等により非喫煙場所に対する開口面をできるだけ小さくします。

・喫煙室の設置場所

喫煙室は就業場所や人の従来が多い区域から適当な距離を取ることが必要となります。ですので、エントランスホール、通路、エレベーター前などの共同使用区域は禁煙とし、喫煙室の設置はできません。 また食堂、休憩所等の中に喫煙室を設置する場合、喫煙室からのたばこの煙の漏えいの防止にには特別の配慮が必要です。

・たばこの煙と臭いは屋外に排出

喫煙室には、たばこの煙を屋外に排出する換気扇等の換気装置を設置し、適切に稼働させ、併せて点検・維持管理も行います。空気清浄装置だけでは効果はありません。

・職場の空気環境と気流の確保

空間分煙を実施する際には、非喫煙場所に煙がもれないことはもちろん、喫煙室が次の基準を満たしていることを定期測定により確認する必要があります。

  • 出入口において室外から室内に流入する空気の気流が0.2m毎秒以上であること
  • たばこの煙が室内から室外に流出しないよう、壁、天井等によって区画されていること
  • たばこの煙が屋外又は外部に排気されていること

義務を守れない場合の罰則

義務に違反した場合、はじめに都道府県知事から指導が入ります。この指導に従場ない場合は、改正法によって、罰則の適用(過料)が課せられることがあります。

改正法における過料とは、秩序罰としての過料であり、法律秩序を維持するために、法令違反者に制裁として科せられるものです。また、過料の金額については、都道府県知事等の通知に基づき、地方裁判所の裁判手続きにより決定されます。

まとめ

企業は、屋内完全禁煙にするか、一定の基準を満たした喫煙室を設置することが義務化され、選択が迫られています。 経営者、社員、その家族も含めたみんなの健康のために、受動喫煙防止対策実施していきましょう。

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