健康経営優良法人の取り組み内容(中小企業部門)

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①定期健康診断受診率100%

労働安全衛生法では、事業者には健康診断の実施義務が、労働者には受診義務が課せられています。

健康診断が受けやすいよう、時間や業務、実施場所を調整するなど、計画立てて健康診断を実施していくことが必要です。

② 受診勧奨の取り組み

健康診断を受診したで、終わることなく、健康診断の結果に基づいて、再検査・精密検査、治療を受ける、あるいは生活習慣の改善、就業環境の改善などに取り組めるように、受診勧奨などの支援を行います。

③50人未満の事業場におけるストレスチェックの実施

常時50人以上の労働者を使用する事業場にストレスチェック制度の実施義務があります。50人未満の事業場については努力義務とされていますが、労働者のメンタル不調の未然防止のため、できるだけ実施することが望ましいとされています。

50人未満の事業場においてストレスチェックをする場合でも、労働安全衛生法に定められたストレスチェック制度に準じて行っていきます。

④健康増進・過重労働防止に向けた具体的目標(計画)の設定

従業員の健康課題を踏まえ、従業員の健康保持・増進、過重労働防止に関する計画を策定し、具体的な数値目標や実施主体、期限を定めます。

目標の達成状況は問われず、達成の進歩状況の把握や評価等のPDCAサイクルが構築されているかがポイントになります。

⑤職又は従業員に対する教育機会の設定~ヘルスリテラシーの向上~

ヘルスリテラシーとは、現在の情報社会の中で、健康の保持増進のために必要な情報を選び、理解し、評価し、利用する能力のことです。

個人のヘルスリテラシーが低いことは、危険な行動や不健康な行動を選択し、健康状態の悪化をもたらします。個人の健康についての知識、行動や健康状態の身に影響するのではなく、家族や友人、同僚など周囲とも相互に影響して、集団の健康にも影響します。

従業員のヘルスリテラシーを強化するために、健康をテーマとした研修を実施したり、健康をテーマとした情報提供を事業者が行ったり、健康情報交換会を行うという方法があります。また管理職や一部の従業員が健康に関する研修を受けた場合は、その内容についてほかの従業員に周知しなければいけません。

⑥適切な働き方実現に向けた取り組み

従業員がワーク・ライフ・バランスを実現できている状態とは

「会社や上司から期待されている仕事あるいは自分自身が納得できる仕事ができ、なおかつ仕事以外でやりたいことに取組めること」と定義しています。(佐藤博樹・武石恵美子著、日本経済新聞社(日経文庫)、2010年)

ワーク・ライフ・バランスの実現に向け、組織として時間外勤務の縮減や有給休暇取得の促進など、仕事と家庭生活の両立に向けた環境づくりのための取り組みを継続的に行っていき、従業員のモチベーションの向上や組織の活性化を図ります。

⑦コミュニケーション促進に向けた取り組み

従業員のモチベーション向上には、「共通目的」「貢献意欲」「コミュニケーション」の3つの要素がポイントになります。(チェスター・バーナードによるモチベーション理論)

コミュニケーションの促進に向けた取り組みとしては、経営者による定期的な従業員面談、積極的な声がけやあいさつ運動などがあり、1年度に1回以上定期的に実施していきます。ただし、従業員の有志により開催するのではなく、事業者が主体となって取り組む必要があります。

⑧病気の治療と仕事の両立の促進に向けた取り組み

病気の治療を要する従業員の治療と仕事の両立支援に向けて、組織として受け入れ体制の整備、相談窓口の設置を行い、周知を図っていくことが必要です。

「事業場における治療と職業生活の両立支援のためのガイドライン(厚生労働省)」に詳しく解説されています。

⑨ 保健指導の実施及び特定保健指導実施機会の提供に関する取り組み

健康診断の結果、特に健康の保持に努める必要があると認められた従業員に対し、医師又は保健師による保健指導・特定保健指導の実施を促すために、指導時間を就業時間内に認定する、または特別休暇を与えるなどの支援を行います。

⑩食生活の改善に向けた取り組み

適切な食事量とバランスの良い食事は、生活習慣病の予防の基本です。生活習慣病による、欠勤、病欠等を防ぐために、従業員の食生活改善を促す取り組みを継続的に行っていくことが必要になります。

健康に配慮した仕出し弁当の利用促進や自動販売機の飲料の一部を低糖・低カロリーの製品に変更すなどの取り組みがあります。

⑪運動機会の増進に向けた取り組み

日頃からだを動かすことは、健康増進はもとより、さまざまな健康リスクを下げることが出来ます。生活習慣病による欠勤、病欠等を防ぐため、従業員の運動を促す取り組みを継続的に行っていることが必要になります。

階段利用を推奨する活動や徒歩・自転車での通勤環境の整備、万歩計にて歩数を計測し、歩数が多かった従業員への表彰を行う等の取り組みがあります。

⑫ 女性の健康保持・増進に向けた取り組み

女性従業員の健康保持・増進に向けた職場環境の整備や女性特有の健康問題に関する知識を得るための取り組みを継続的に行っていることが必要です。

女性特有の健康問題は、業種や年齢などによっても異なる為、それぞれの会社での実態を把握し、適した体制や制度などを整備していくことが大切です。

女性の健康専門の相談窓口の設置や妊娠中の従業員に対する業務上の配慮の社内規定の明文化と周知、生理休暇を取得しやすい環境の整備などがあります。

⑬ 従業員の感染症予防に向けた取り組み

職場における感染症対策の目的は4つあります。

  • 従業員を感染症による健康問題から守ること
  • ウイルス性肝炎やHIV感染症などの慢性の感染症に罹患している従業員の病状が悪化しないようにすること
  • 感染症の社内流行によって組織の生産性や企業の経営全体に悪影響が出ることを防ぐこと
  • 感染症に罹患した従業員の仕事を通じた顧客など社外の人への感染拡大を防ぐこと

アルコール消毒液の設置やマスクの配布、インフルエンザ予防接種時間の出勤認定や費用の補助、感染症対策や予防接種に関する情報提供等の取り組みがあります。

⑭長時間労働者への対応に関する取り組み

労働政策研究・研修機構の調査によると、週当たりの実労働時間が長い人ほど健康不安が高く、健康不安が高い人ほど能力発揮に対する自己評価が低い傾向にあり、また長時間労働と脳・心臓疾患の発症は、慣例性が高いという医学的知見があります。

また、日常的に長時間労働を行った場合や仕事の負荷が重いと、ストレスにより精神疾患の発症のおそれもあり、従業員の健康を保持増進するため、長時間労働の削減が急がれます。

超過勤務時間が一定時間を超えた労働者に対する医師や産業保健スタッフによる面接指導、業務負荷の見直し、勤務時間の制限の実施等の取り組みがあります。

⑮ メンタルヘルス不調者への対応に関する取り組み

メンタルヘルス対策は、職場環境の改善や労働者同士のストレスマネジメント(ストレスを上手にコントロールして心身に及ぶ負担を軽減すること)の向上を中心とする一次予防、メンタルヘルス不調者の早期発見と対応を中心とする二次予防、メンタル不調者の職場復帰や再発予防を中心とする三次予防があります。

ストレスチェックで、一次予防、二次予防を行い、三次予防は職場のメンタル不調者に対するサポート体制や職場復帰プログラムの策定、メンタル不調者の相談窓口の設置などになります。

事業者が従業員の意見を聴きつつ、事業場の実態に則した取り組みを行うことが必要となります。

⑯受動喫煙対策

健康増進法は段階的に施行され、2020年4月1日に、全面実施となり、「望まない受動喫煙をなくす」「受動喫煙による健康被害が大きい子供や患者等に特に配慮する」「施設・場所ごとに対策を実施する」といった考えのもと、喫煙禁止場所での喫煙を罰則付きで禁止し、受動喫煙対策の強化を図っています。

そのような社会の流れがあり、職場内、事業場内で受動喫煙防止に向けて適切な環境整備がされることが必要になります。

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