健康経営とは!?

健康経営とは「従業員が元気に働けるようにサポートし、 その結果として 従業員の生産性が上がり、会社の収益も上向きになる取り組み」のことです。

経済産業省では健康経営は 「従業員の健康保持・増進の取組が、将来的に収益性等を高める投資である との考えの下、健康管理を経営的視点から考え、戦略的に実践すること。」 と言っています。

健康投資として、従業員の健康保持に取り組むと

  • 生産性の向上
  • 企業負担の軽減
  • リスクマネジメント
  • 従業員の意欲向上
  • 企業のイメージアップ、社会的評価の獲得
  • よい人材が集まる
  • 社員の定着率が上がる が期待されます。

さらに、従業員の健康増進の社会への効果

  • 国民の生活の質の向上
  • 健康寿命の延長
  • 国民医療費の削減ができる

◆なんで健康経営を推進しているの?

  • 超高齢化社会による社会保障費の増加
  • 生産年齢人口の減少による人手不足
  • 平均寿命と健康寿命の差が大きい         この3点が挙げられます。

①超高齢化社会による社会保障費の増加

超高齢化社会が、今後益々加速し、 医療や介護、年金などの社会保障費が年々増加しています。 健康経営を行い、経営者、働いている人は基より、その家族を含めた 日本国民が健康で元気に過ごせれば、 医療費や介護費といった社会保障費の削減につながります。

②生産年齢人口の減少による人手不足 

少子高齢化社会になれば、当然、生産年齢人口が減少します。 すでに今、求人を出しても人が集まらないなどの人手不足の問題がありますが、 更に10年後には800万人働く人が減ると推測されており、 超人手不足の時代がやってきます。

全国:有効求人倍率の推移

2009年のリーマンショック時は大幅に下がりましたが、以降は右肩上がりで、2014年からは有効求人倍率が「1」を上回っています。

つまり、求職者数よりも求人数が多いということです。2017年、2018年はバブル期のピークだった「1.46」倍をも上回っています。

そのような時代の中、企業が労働力を維持して生き残るために、 健康経営を実践して、従業員の定着率を上げることや、 労働力の安定や向上を目指していくことが大事になってきます。

③平均寿命と健康寿命の差が大きい

日本人の平均寿命は、女性86.61歳、男性80.21歳と世界一と長いのですが、 健康寿命は女性74.21歳、男性71.19歳と、平均寿命との差、 不健康寿命が約10年間あります。

老後、亡くなるまで約10年間は、医療や介護に依存した生活を送ることになります。 せっかく長生きしても、そんな状態では、もったいないですよね。

健康経営は、健康で元気な状態で過ごす期間を延ばすこと、 すなわち健康寿命の延長の効果も期待されています。

働いている世代から、食生活や運動習慣を気を付けて過ごしていれば 老後も健康で元気な状態で生活できます。

※健康寿命とは、日常的・継続的な医療・介護に依存しないで、自立した生活ができる生存期間のことを言います。

◆目に見えない労働損失!?

「出勤はしているものの、体調が優れない状況で仕事をしている」

こんな方、会社にいませんか?もしくは、ひと月に何日かは自分がそうとか…

慢性的に疲労が蓄積された状態や頭痛、腰痛、花粉症などを抱えながら 休むほどではないが仕事をしている状況です。 特に女性は、ひと月の間にホルモンバランスが大きく変動するので、 それに伴う、頭痛・腹痛の他に、 精神的にイライラしたり、情緒不安定になることもあります。 これらの身体的・精神的状況を抱えながらでは、 当然、集中力が低下し、仕事の効率も落ちます。 そのためその人が本来持っている能力を充分発揮できず、生産性が低下します。

アメリカの研究によれば、 休むほどではないけど、体調が優れない状態で仕事をしている状態 によって企業には見えない労働損失が発生しており、 その額は医療費や病気休業にかかる費用よりも大きいとされています。

健康経営は、この労働損失を減らし、 労働力の安定や向上を図る上でも大きな役割を担っています。

◆健康経営によるプラスの効果

① 生産性の向上

心身ともに健康である状態であれば、本来の能力・パフォーマンスを十分に発揮できます。本来の能力・パフォーマンスを十分発揮できれば、必然的に社員一人一人の生産性が上がります。

健康経営を推進し、社員の健康増進することで、会社の利益に繋がります。

② 企業負担の軽減

中小企業においては、メンタル不調や体調不良による休職者が出た場合、代替要員が確保できないため、すぐに経営に大きな影響が出てしまいます。

その影響を最小限に抑えるためにも、健康経営を推進し、従業員の健康維持・増進に取組むことは、数年後の会社を支えていくうえでも、重要な投資の一つと言えます。

③ リスクマネジメント

【労働災害発生の防止】

職場における労働災害の原因は、設備、原材料、作業方法、作業環境等の「物的原因」と、労働者の「人的要因」に分類できます。

この人的要因において、労働者の健康を害したことが原因による労働災害を防ぐためにも、労働者の健康の維持・増進を行う健康経営は重要な役割を担っています。

企業が健康経営に取り組み、従業員の運動、食事、睡眠といった生活習慣の改善を行い、健康の維持・増進ができれば、労働災害の発生のリスクを減らすことも期待できます。

④ 従業員の意欲向上

企業が健康経営を通して、従業員の健康の維持・増進に努めることで 「会社は自分のことを大事にしてくれている」と経営者の思いが従業員に 伝わり、働く意欲が向上します。

その結果、個人のパフォーマンスが十分に発揮され、会社の利益につながります。

⑤ 企業のイメージアップ、社会的評価の獲得

健康経営の取り組みを行っている企業に対して、様々な顕彰制度があり、認定企業になれば、その制度のホームページで企業名を公表しています。

それだけではなく、認定者による、プレスを招いた発表会や取り組み事例集の発行、展示会の出展などが実施されることもあります。

健康経営を推進していることを、社内外にアピールしていくことで、“企業のイメージの向上”が期待できます。

⑥ よい人材が集まる

企業のイメージが向上できれば、採用に対する応募者数が増えるだけではなく、応募者の質も高めることができます。

優秀な人材が集まれば、売上も上がり、更に企業のイメージアップにつながるという、“正のスパイラル”が生じます。

⑦ 社員の定着率が上がる

人手不足の現状の中、人材採用と併せて人材定着が大きな課題となっています。

企業は従業員の離職により、

1)教育コストや人材を採用するコストが無駄になる

2)企業独自のノウハウが蓄積しにくい

3)技術の伝承がしづらく、生産性が低下する

などが考えられます。特に、中小企業では、従業員一人一人の業務範囲が比較的広いため、離職は大きな痛手となります。

健康経営を推進することにより、従業員は「健康を気遣い、大切にしてくれる会社」として、企業に対する愛着もわいてきます。それが、従業員の定着につながれば、離職による生産性の低下を防ぐことができます。

◆健康経営優良法人認定制度


「健康経営優良法人」の認定制度は、健康経営を実践している優良な大企業や中小企業等の法人を認定する制度で、2017年からスタートしました。

「従業員の健康管理を経営的な視点で考え、戦略的に取り組んでいる法人」として、社会的評価が上がることはもちろんのこと、企業のイメージ向上や社員のモチベーションの向上、採用求人への応募者の増加など、認定を受けることでプラスの効果が多くあります。

健康経営優良法人は大規模法人部門と小規模法人部門に分かれていて、それぞれに合わせた認定基準で評価されているので、中小企業でも取り組みやすい仕組みになっています。

2017年から始まった制度ですが、中小企業部門では、3年間で認定を取った企業が約 7倍になっており、注目度が高くなっているのがわかります。

◆まとめ

健康経営を推進することで、たくさんのプラスの効果があります。

経営者、従業員が健康で元気な職場であれば、生産性も上がり、会社の利益に繋がります。

健康経営優良法人認定制度を利用し、健康経営優良法人を取得することで、健康経営を効率よく進めることができます。

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